Evidence on the climate-conflict link

To recap the current state of research on climate securitization and the empirical link between climate change and violent conflict, global reviews of quantitative statistical and case studies in the peer-reviewed literature are performed. The results are classified with several criteria, such as specified climate-conflict link, conflict type, region, analyzed period and data used to carve out differences and similarities. Disentangling the climate-conflict nexus, the empirical foundations for causal pathways are analysed, such as precipitation changes, freshwater scarcity, food insecurity, weather extremes, and environmental migration. Suggestions are made to overcome the research deficits, including the use of well-defined terms and concepts, reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of research designs and datasets, the development of an integrative theoretical framework that also accounts for climate-cooperation links, and the assessment of geographical distribution of vulnerabilities in climate hotspots.