A second field of research is the security implications of climate-related migration. One objective is to assess, primarily through case studies, the role of environmental factors in causing migration as well as the consequences of migration, which is or can be seen as climate-induced in receiving regions (Jakobeit/Metmann 2011). C. Jakobeit is planning case studies research in the Sahel zone using a mix of empirical methods to improve knowledge about the relative impact of environmental change as one set of stressors among many others in the region, possibly leading to increased migration pressures and the propensity of escalating conflicts. J. Oßenbrügge will extend existing research on urbanization to rural-urban linkages. J. Scheffran and M. Brzoska will supervise case studies on the links between migration and conflict. A second objective is the analysis of the perception of the risks of climate-induced migration in security discourses and the ensuing development of countermeasures to meet those perceived risks. Additionally research on migration and security policy instruments will be conducted (Brzoska, Manez-Costa, Oels).