Research Area B: With a focus on regional climate phenomena, researchers involved in this key area aim to verify how climate change affects vulnerable terrains: For instance, how does global change impact the Arctic sea ice and permafrost regions? What are likely consequences as regards land use, vegetation, and development projects? Or vice versa: How does intensive land use affect our climate? What short-, medium- and long-term ramifications of biogeochemical land-ocean matter flux changes are to be expected? Are current coupled ocean-ecosystem models suited to assess how phytoplankton and sea creatures will respond to environmental changes? What are the limits of model-based climate change predictions? What does this imply for prospective urban planning, governance, safety, and infrastructure?